Historical past of the Eclectic Motion (1825-1939)

Introduction

The Eclectic motion, a defunct Nineteenth-century botanical medical system, operated from 1825 by means of 1939. The Eclectics spent greater than 114 years learning North American medicinal vegetation. This challenge relies on the Eclectic materia medica.

With a view to perceive the Eclectic motion, it’s essential to evaluate American medical historical past main as much as the Nineteenth century and to look at Nineteenth-century American medical historical past.

18th Century American Drugs

Drugs within the 18th-century North American colonies was a fusion of three major components: European information, Native American information, and improvisation. Firstly, the European colonials got here to the brand new world with the European medical philosophies and practices. The provinces being British colonies, British medication was the best affect. Secondly, the Colonials lived amongst Native People peoples who had their very own system of medication. This too was handed onto the colonials. Lastly, life within the wilderness, missing the conveniences of Europe, required making due with what was accessible. (1-3)

Medical doctors

There have been two forms of medical doctors training medication within the 18th century, these with formal medical coaching and people with out. Medical doctors with formal coaching had been uncommon. In keeping with Richard H. Shryock, “Physicians, just like the higher courses didn’t migrate abroad.” (4) When the American Revolution occurred (1776), there have been roughly 3500 medical doctors working within the colonies, solely 400 of whom had formal medical education. (5) Of those who did, most had been educated in Britain. (6)

The medical doctors with out education, typically referred to as “nation medical doctors,” “root medical doctors,” or “injun medical doctors,” had been self-taught, realized from different nation medical doctors, or acquired their therapeutic information from the Native People. As Haller states, “whether or not these physicians had earned levels was much less a difficulty than was their skill to apply medication. The time period physician grew to become a title of respect accorded these practitioners no matter any declare to studying.”(8) Gevitz makes the same assertion: “the patronage of medical practitioners, nevertheless they categorized themselves, was based mostly much less on training than on the flexibility to hold out companies.” (9)

Medical Training

Within the early a part of the 18th century, a younger man concerned about pursuing a proper medical training had two choices: he might turn into an apprentice to a doctor, or he might journey to Britain to obtain coaching. (10)

Apprenticeship

The commonest path to turning into a doctor was apprenticeship. Boys between the ages of 14 and 18 had been indentured for a time period of three to seven years. This may very well be an association between strangers however extra typically it occurred inside medical households. By watching and helping, the apprentice realized methods to bleed, put together medication, and carry out minor surgical procedure. The apprentice had entry to the physician’s one or two medical books, which had been, virtually with out exception, printed in Britain. (10-12)

Going Overseas for Medical Training

Within the early 18th century, the few younger males that went overseas to review often studied in Britain, Edinburgh being the commonest vacation spot. In 1750, there have been 5 American graduates of Edinburgh; in 1760, there have been twenty-five. (12) Because the century progressed, extra People went overseas for coaching. Between 1775 and 1800, a median of 12 People enrolled at Edinburgh annually. In keeping with Entin, “a medical diploma from Edinburgh gave a definite benefit to younger graduates and guaranteed them of a profitable profession.” (13)

Medical Faculties in America

Within the later a part of the 18th century, medical faculties started to open in America. In 1765, Dr. John Morgan (1735-1789) created a division of medication inside the Faculty of Philadelphia. It was the primary chartered medical faculty within the 13 colonies. (14) Morgan graduated from Edinburgh (1763) and staffed the college with different Edinburgh graduates together with William Shippen, Jr. (1736-1808) and Benjamin Rush (1745-1813). (15)

The Philadelphia medical faculty supplied a wonderful training, together with an apprenticeship, a two-year graded curriculum, scientific lectures, and hospital expertise on the Pennsylvania Hospital (1751). By the tip of the 18th century, three comparable medical schools opened, together with Kings Faculty, Columbia College (1767), the medical division of Harvard Faculty, Cambridge (1783), and the medical division of Dartmouth Faculty, Hanover, NH (1798). (16)

Medical Principle in 18th Century America

The “faculty” taught American medical scholar realized British medical concept. In keeping with Schultz, “The speculation of the apply of medication in British America got here from England with little or no modification.” (6) British medical philosophy was largely based mostly on the theories of Hippocrates (fifth Century BC) and Galen (130-200AD).

Galen’s concept was embraced by 18th-century British medical faculties, and by extension the brand new faculties in America. He posited that well being was achieved when the 4 humors inside the physique — blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile — had been in stability. Illness occurred when these identical humors weren’t in stability. Medical doctors deduced that the way in which to revive well being was to stability the humors by means of blood letting, induction of vomiting, evacuation of the bowels, or by means of stimulating urination or sweating. The philosophy was referred to as rationalism, as a result of it was rationally deduced from Galen’s concept. It was additionally referred to as humoralism and Galenic humoralism. (17.)

As well as, the 18th-century British medical faculties taught the work of Paracelsus or Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493-1541). Paracelsus believed in a chemical foundation for the universe and advocated the usage of mineral medication, together with mercury, lead, antimony, iron, and arsenic. (18)

A big aspect of this philosophy was {that a} doctor handled the state of the humors and never a selected illness. The remedy of particular illnesses was thought of quackery. (19)

In 18th-century America, Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) was a number one doctor and main proponent of Galenic humoralism and the work of Paracelsus. He had studied in Edinburgh below probably the most well-known British physicians, William Cullen (1712-1790) (20) and returned house with the intent of sharing his information.

Benjamin Rush (1745-1813), like Cullen, believed illness was the consequence of an imbalance within the humors, particularly one resting within the blood vessels (21), and that blood letting resolved the imbalance. (22) He departed from Cullen within the excessive bleeding and purging he advocated. Of Rush’s regimens, Haller mentioned, “Not like his mentor Cullen, who had employed solely average bleeding, Rush carried conventional humoralism to the peak of therapeutic recklessness with heroic, excessive bleeding and purging, undeterred by criticism or by claims that his routine didn’t reconcile with the mortality charges of his sufferers. (23) Rush thought of excessive bleeding a remedy all and adopted it with the administration of ten grains of calomel (mercury) and ten grains of jalap (a botanical purgative). This remedy grew to become referred to as “The Outdated Ten and Ten” and was broadly utilized in America. (24)

Rush was probably the most well-known doctor of his day, was on the college of America’s first medical faculty, and taught lots of America’s first university-trained physicians. His concepts had been taught in medical faculties and practiced by educated physicians throughout America. (25) The time period Heroic Drugs is used to explain the medical practices of Rush and his followers and is alleged to have peaked within the first half of the Nineteenth century. (6) Nevertheless, bleeding and oral mercury had been utilized by the American medical institution till the start of the Twentieth century. (26)

Nineteenth Century American Drugs

In 1807, medical training in america took a flip for the more serious. Baltimore physicians John Davide, Nathaniel Potter, James Cocke, and John Shaw based the Faculty of Drugs of Maryland. The college was opened for revenue, had neither affiliation with a tutorial establishment nor a hospital, and admitted college students based mostly on their skill to pay. (27) Haller referred to as this the “Maryland Mannequin,” and it quickly unfold throughout America. Inside 14 years, a lot of the older faculties dropped admission requirements, commencement requirements and a graded curriculum. Normal medical training grew to become two un-graded periods lasting sixteen to twenty weeks, the second a repetition of the primary, and no scientific expertise. (28-30)

Thus, at the start of the Nineteenth century, the American medical system was in a state of disarray. American medical training was degenerating, and the coaching medical doctors did obtain was in a flawed philosophy. Not surprisingly, public opinion of educated medical doctors deteriorated and confidence diminished. (31) American medication was headed for a disaster. To cite Alexander Wilder, an Eclectic medical historian, “it was not reformation which the current state of medication demanded, however, revolution.” (32)

Statesman Thomas Jefferson was on the forefront of demanding a change in course. In a letter to Caspar Wistar, dated 1807, Jefferson spoke out in opposition to medical doctors and their deadly, but trendy, therapies, complained that medical doctors knew little, assumed a lot, and broken many. He mentioned, “The affected person, handled on the trendy concept, typically will get nicely regardless of the medicines.” (33) Jefferson remarked to a good friend that “every time he noticed three physicians collectively he regarded as much as see if there have been buzzards within the neighborhood.” The statesman spoke out particularly in opposition to Rush and criticized him for utilizing therapies based mostly on an untested concept that went opposite to nature (34).

This didn’t characterize unique considering on the a part of Jefferson. When he was Minister to France (1784-89) he was uncovered to the French Faculty of medication — a bunch that had damaged ranks with the Rationalists. Concepts from France modified Jefferson’s fascinated by medication, and French concepts finally modified medical considering in America. (35.)

New Medical Concepts from France

Following the French Revolution (1789), new hospitals and faculties had been created in Paris. Inside these new colleges, a serious riot in opposition to rationalism occurred. The brand new French Faculty was constructed upon three ideas: bodily examination, autopsy examination, and statistics based mostly on prognosis and outcomes. They put scientific expertise and scientific outcomes first and concept final. (36)

Together with the admittance of empirical proof into medical apply, the French faculty ushered in a better curiosity in particular illnesses, a diminished curiosity in humors, mistrust of heroic medical procedures, and a perception that, if left alone, the physique would typically heal itself. (37)

One of many implications of this philosophy was that therapies had been judged from an efficacy standpoint. Pierre Louis (1787-1872), launched the usage of statistics in learning medical outcomes and decided that blood letting and purging didn’t work. For the reason that French Faculty labored with empirical knowledge, they had been referred to as Empirics and their medication Empirical medication. (36)

Following the tip of the Napoleonic Wars (1815), American college students, dissatisfied with Rationalism, studied in Paris. Paris grew to become the most important overseas centre of training for American medical college students for forty years (1824-1864). After they got here house, they introduced empiricism with them. (36)

French Empiricism in America

By the late 1830s and early 1840s French Empiricism had a presence in America. The French faculty printed 300 books on their theories within the 1830s, and lots of of those books made their technique to America. (36) Two American physicians, influenced by the French Faculty, supplied the American doctor a substitute for Rationalism. Dr. Elisha Bartlett and Dr. Jacob Bigelow each introduced the medical public with French concepts. (37)

Jacob Bigelow (1787-1879 )

Jacob Bigelow was a visiting doctor to Massachusetts Common Hospital and Harvard’s first professor of Materia Medica. A scholar of Rush, he rejected his trainer’s teachings, as an alternative turning into a devotee of Pierre Louis. He introduced People with the French notion that the physique might heal itself. This was set forth in an tackle, “Discourse on Self Restricted Illness,” introduced to the Massachusetts Medical Society in 1835. (38-39)

Elisha Bartlett (1804-1855)

Elisha Bartlett, a Rhode Island doctor, strongly influenced by the French Faculty, disavowed rationalistic medication, and believed in Louis’ use of statistical averages in figuring out remedy efficacy. He studied in Paris, devoted his books to Pierre Louis, and inspired college students to decide on Paris over Edinburgh. He made French concepts accessible to the American reader in his “An Essay on the Philosophy of Medical Science” (1844) and “The Historical past, prognosis, and remedy of the fevers of america”(1847). He lectured on these concepts in medical faculties all through america. (40)

Medical Reform in America

The medical panorama started to vary. Rationalism, rooted within the Galenic custom, was being challenged by French Empiricism. Medical considering started to maneuver towards French concepts with acceptance of Louis’ proof that heroic medication didn’t work. (132)

People had found out that heroic medication didn’t work and averted old fashioned medical doctors. In keeping with Spiegel, “People who grew to become ailing regularly averted orthodox physicians as a result of their proffered remedy was ineffective and probably extra hazardous than the sickness itself.” American celebrities, together with Louisa Might Alcott, William Cullen Bryant, Nathaniel Hawthorne, William James, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Daniel Webster, and Harriet Beecher Stowe, publicly rejected the practices of the medical institution. (41)

The medical institution reacted with an unwillingness to vary both their considering or medical practices. (93) They continued to defend the practices of bleeding, purging, and leaching. (41-42)

Underneath the presidency of Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), anti-establishment by nature, the enforcement of all method of regulation was relaxed. This included the restrictive medical legal guidelines that protected the medical institution and excluded medical non-conformists. (43)

These converging elements allowed for the unrestricted growth of colleges of reform medication. In studying medical texts from that interval, one begins to come across phrases like common, orthodox, old fashioned, allopath, and dominant faculty getting used to explain the medical institution. Phrases like reformer, irregular, botanic, and empiric had been used to explain those that parted firm with the medical mainstream.

In keeping with Shryock, Nineteenth-century America was house to not less than 9 reform medical sects together with homeopathy, Eclecticism, Thomsonianism, Chrono-thermalistism, hygiene cults, hydropathy, Christian Science, Osteopathy, and Chiropractic included. (131) Many of those sects centered on the usage of botanical medicines. Reform actions related to botanical treatments included the Homeopaths, Thomsonians, Shakers, Physico-Medicalists, and the Eclectics.

Coulter asserts that this new path was very a lot in response to Rush himself. “Though physicians within the 13 colonies made occasional use of native Medicinal vegetation, it was in all probability Rush’s inflexible and systematic doctrine which provoked educated physicians, within the early nineteenth century, to arrange botanical apply as a competing system.” (44) Quite a few elements aside from a dislike of Rush satisfied reformers to focus on botanical treatments.

Disgust with heroic medication

Heroic medication made use of poisonous chemical compounds (mercury, lead, arsenic, antimony, and many others.). The reformers had seen what occurred to sufferers handled with poisons, they usually rejected the usage of poisons of their new practices of medication. (45) They had been in search of non-toxic medicines and located botanical medicines to be their reply. Luckily for them a list of botanical medication had been amassed over time by many impartial researchers utilizing quite a few sources. As well as, favorable cultural and historic elements got here into play.

European Cultural Perception

The English colonials arrived in North America with the assumption that God supplied the medicines they wanted on the land on which they lived. Within the Bible, (Ecclesiastes 38:4), God directs the Israelites to hunt amongst the vegetation of the earth when in want of therapeutic. Certainly, European theologians and naturalists taught that God supplied each area with natural medicines that may deal with the situations suffered by these dwelling in that particular area. (46-47) Upon arrival, the colonials started in search of medicines of their midst.

Practicality Necessity

Sensible necessity compelled colonials to seek out medicines within the woods and meadows. (48) In keeping with Gevitz, the colonials, dwelling far-off from the apothecaries of Europe, dwelling in distant situations, “had come ready for self sufficiency” and “particularly, colonists must handle sickness with out the plethora of supplies accessible by means of an apothecary”. (49) Physicians, in response to Boorstin, additionally participated within the search, “Nothing was extra pure than that European educated physicians, discovering themselves in a brand new land with many unfamiliar vegetation, ought to seize the chance for botanical discoveries. “(50)

Commerce

Like every colony, America was a supply of pure sources for the European monarchies. Together with gold, silver, and spices, monarchs inspired their colonists to hunt out medicinal vegetation. The British crown ordered the Virginia colony to hunt out medicinal vegetation (51-52), and as early as 1590, Virginia shipped medicinal vegetation to London to be used in medical apply (49, 53). Accumulating botanical medicines helped colonials become profitable.

Assist from the “Outdated Faculty”

When medical faculties first opened in America, they inspired the examine of medical botany. Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) himself was a supporter. In his e book, “Medical Enquiries” (1789), Rush makes clear his view that American medicinal vegetation needs to be reviewed for his or her use in medication. “Domesticate or put together as lots of them as potential, and endeavour to enlarge the materia medica, by exploring the untrodden fields and forest of america” (54) In keeping with Berman, even physicians who practiced heroic medication had been “Keenly concerned about scientifically growing an indigenous plant materia medica.” (55) The medical institution inspired medical botany.

Presence of the “Injun” Physician and Native American Drugs

Nation medical doctors, or “Injun” medical doctors, a typical practitioner in America, made the materia medica of the Native People accessible to most of the people. (56) They had been referred to as “Injun medical doctors” as a result of they had been largely influenced by Native American medication. (57-59) North America was house to greater than 100 completely different Native American Cultures that developed a sophisticated pharmacy lengthy earlier than the colonials appeared, and the Injun medical doctors absorbed this data. (57, 60)

Botanical Drugs Cataloguers

In America, from the earliest day, there have been people who devoted their lives to accumulating info on medicinal vegetation. Two such people had been Benjamin Smith Barton (1766-1815), and C.S. Rafinesque (1783-1840). (61)

Benjamin Smith Barton was a professor of pure historical past and botany on the Faculty of Philadelphia. He wrote “Parts of Botany “(1803) and an unfinished “Collections for an Essay in direction of a Materia Medica of america” (1798-1804). He died earlier than the e book was completed, and it was accomplished by his nephew William P.C.Barton as “The Vegetale Materia Medica of america” (1817-35). (62)

Constantine Samuel Rafinesque(1783-1840), was a professor of botany at Transylvania College (79). Rafinesque spent years studying from the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee tribes within the north and south, and from native healers and nation medical doctors. His analysis culminated in “Medical Flora or Handbook of Medical Botany of america, Quantity One, (1828), and the Medical Flora, Quantity Two(1830). (60) In addition to being a plant explorer, in response to Boyle, “It was his avowed objective to reform medical apply by making botanical information accessible to all.” (63-64)

For all these causes, by the 12 months 1830, a really massive catalogue of medicinal vegetation and their medicinal makes use of had been collected. The reformers, in search of a substitute for the chemical medication of the medical institution, had an amazing stockpile of vegetation at their disposal.

Probably the most well-known botanical medical teams had been the Shakers, the Thomsonians, the Homeopaths, the Physico-medicalists, and the Eclectics. These teams had been medical reformers who used botanical medication, however there the similarities finish. Every group used botanical treatments in their very own manner. A more in-depth examination of those actions makes this clear.

The Shakers

The founding father of the Shakers, Ann Lee (1736-1784), was born in Manchester, England. Raised within the slums of working class England, she was profoundly affected by the rampant poverty and illness there. She based a non secular cult that embraced bodily in addition to non secular well being. Lee moved the motion to America the place the “Shakers” grew to become concerned in therapeutic and the manufacturing of medicines, particularly medicines produced from Native American vegetation. They realized of those vegetation from the Indians and settlers dwelling close to their Connecticut colonies. (65) The Shakers’ medical apply mirrored their non secular apply, which included purification (purgatives), a dismissal of treatments solely used for beautification functions, and the stimulation of inside organs answerable for bodily purity (tonics). (66)

Thomsonian Motion

The motion was based by Samuel Thomson (1769-1843). In 1839, Thomson had 3 million followers and in response to Boyle, the motion “reached dimensions a lot exceeding these of any later cult.” Thomson’s aim was to “seize medication from what he thought of the monopolistic maintain of educated professionals and return it to the frequent folks.” (67)

As a baby, Thomson realized from a feminine “nation physician,” Dr.Benson. Benson taught him methods to heal utilizing the Native American strategy of sweat (steam) and puke (purgatives). He had success with therapeutic household and associates and took up full time doctoring in 1805. He created a line of proprietary, patented botanical medicines, and a e book guiding their use, “New Information to Well being: Or Botanic Household Doctor” (1825). For the sum of twenty {dollars}, anybody might turn into a licensed agent, or “physician.”

Medically talking, Thomson practiced botanical Galenic humoralism. He believed that illness was attributable to “chilly” and by poor digestive “fireplace”. By heating the physique up (steam) and activating the digestive tract (puke), well being may very well be achieved. He distinguished himself from the medical institution in that he rejected bleeding and mercury, and used botanical medicines of their stead. (68)

Physio-Medicalism

Based by Alva Curtis(1797-1881), this sect was referred to as neo-Thomsonianism, impartial Thomsonianism, and Botanico-medicalism. The founder had been a Thomsonian, and certainly, certainly one of Thomson’s deputies. The motion assorted from the Thomsonians in “having a bigger materia medica, in believing in scientific training for its practitioners and in not recognizing absolutely the infallible authority of Samuel Thomson.” Curtis opened a faculty and clinic in Cincinnati, in direct competitors with the Eclectic Institute. It was by no means a major drive within the reform motion and at its peak it had someplace between 1500 and 2500 practitioners. The motion died when Curtis handed away in 1881. (69)

Homeopathy

The motion was based in Germany by Samuel Hahneman(1755-1843). Hahneman developed the speculation of treating like with like or similia similibus curentur. If an individual suffered from runny eyes, he would deal with them with an extract of onion. As well as, he experimented with utilizing the smallest potential doses, finally working with virtually microscopic doses.

Homeopathy was launched into the US in 1825 by Hans Burch Gram. Initially, the variety of homeopathic practitioners grew with immigration from Germany. Later, the primary homeopathic faculty was opened in Allentown (1835). The American Institute of Homeopathy (1844) was based to additional the reason for Homeopathy within the US. The American Homeopaths made use of American natural treatments, however they used “prefer to deal with like,” they usually used these in very small doses. (70)

The Eclectic Motion

The Eclectic Medical Motion existed, in varied kinds, from 1825 and till 1939. Like the opposite botanical reformers, the Eclectics began with the botanical knowledge amassed within the first 200 years of American historical past. They spent the following 114 years re-studying American medicinal vegetation from their very own perspective.

Michael Flannery, former Library director of the Lloyd Library and adjunct professor at Northern Kentucky College, has studied the Eclectics extensively and had this to say of the Eclectic motion: “Eclecticism will be briefly described as a nineteenth-century sectarian medical motion rising out of People dissatisfaction with the cruel heroic therapies attribute of standard (additionally known as allopathic) practitioners. Distrustful of European concepts and establishments, Eclectics promoted botanical treatments drawn primarily from America’s fields and forests reasonably than the chemical and mineral concoctions that shaped a lot of the allopath’s armamentarium.” (71)

Important Eclectics

The founding father of the Eclectic motion was Wooster Seashore (1794-1868). He was succeeded in management by John King (1813-1893) and John Milton Scudder (1829-1894). These males wrote the Eclectic textbooks and taught the Eclectic medical college students. Their ideas grew to become Eclectic canon and guided the medical doctors who referred to as themselves Eclectics.

Wooster Seashore, MD

Wooster Seashore (1794-1868) was born in Trumbull, Connecticut. At an early age he displayed an curiosity in medication and theology. At the start, Seashore was captivated with medical reform. In his early writings, he makes his need for medical reform clear: “It’s time that the reign of medical tyranny ought to stop; it has dominated the world with an iron grasp. Hundreds have been the victims sacrificed at its shrine. Let revolution-revolution be the cry by means of mountain and glen, valley and plain, till this hydra of medical aristocracy be shorn of its fangs-until the tears shed by struggling humanity shall stop to move!” (72)

Seashore’s ardour empowered an extended and productive profession in medical reform, spanning 1818 till the time of his loss of life in 1868. Harvey Wickes Felter, an Eclectic medical Historian, mentioned this of Seashore: “Completely dissatisfied with the present medical strategies as practiced at the moment so vigorously and viciously, he labored diligently and earnestly to result in reform and set up a brand new faculty or system of medication.” (73)

Seashore investigated any and all modalities in an effort to seek out efficient medical methods. (74) He then wove thesemedical methods into what a reform model of medication referred to as “The American Follow.” “My major object, in my labors within the discipline of medical reform, is now, and has ever been, to clear away the garbage of former, in addition to of current, medical theories, and amide their wreck to gather no matter supplies could be discovered, from all correct sources, for the development of a brand new edifice, resting on broader and extra sturdy basis.” (75)

Influences

Conviction

Certainly one of Seashore’s major influences was conviction, conviction that developed from seeing the realities of heroic medication. Seashore mentioned, “With such info staring me within the face, my soul was crammed with indignation at these devices of cruelty and distress, administered below the specious pretext of eradicating illness. I felt a deep solicitude to impact a reformation.” (76)

Botanical Physicians

By way of a relative, Seashore heard about a health care provider named Tidd who had rejected heroic medication and relied primarily upon botanical medicines. (77) Seashore discovered Tidd dwelling in rural Amwell, New Jersey, and studied with him till the physician handed away on the age of 74. (78)

In keeping with Porter, Tidd “obtained his medical information of a German Doctor of excessive standing; and afterward obtained a lot worthwhile info from a relative who had been taken prisoner among the many Indians in the course of the battle .” (79) The “German Doctor” that educated Tidd was the botanical physician George Andrew Viesselius, additionally of Amwell. Viesselius centered on native botanical treatments for 2 causes. Firstly, the Townsend Acts of 1767 and different non-importation agreements restricted physicians’ entry to European herbs. (80) Secondly, he believed in these native treatments. Coulter writes, “The Hallmark of the Botanics was confidence within the folks medication of the Indians and within the folks medication of the frequent folks usually.” (81)

Seashore was influenced by different botanists and botanical physicians together with Constantine Rafinesque and Elisha Smith. Parts of Rafinesques’ “Medical Flora” (1828-30) and Elisha Smith’s “The Botanic Doctor” (1830) will be present in Seashore’s “The American Follow.” (82) In Seashore’s personal phrases, “I’ve not thought it beneath me to converse with Root medical doctors and Indian medical doctors, and everybody who has professed any worthwhile treatment, or any improved technique of treating any illness.” (81)

Medical Follow

All through his profession, Seashore was a busy practitioner. For instance, between June 1827 and June 1828, he noticed 2100 sufferers at his infirmary in New York Metropolis. In 1832, he handled 1000 victims of a cholera epidemic within the span of three months. And, in response to Porter, “Within the remedy of illness he grew to become so skillful and profitable that his fame unfold far and huge, and he was despatched for from varied sections of the nation to seek the advice of with distinguished surgeons and physicians in each number of criticism.” (83)

Medical Institution

After his apprenticeship to Tidd, Seashore returned to New York. Nevertheless, to apply medication in New York required a medical license and that in flip required a diploma from an “old fashioned” medical faculty. (80) “I attended a course of lectures within the College of the State of New York, in the course of the time Dr.Publish, Hossack, and Mott and others, had been professors. I concluded this was finest, had been it solely to detect the errors of the fashionable apply.” (84-85)

Homeopathy

Seashore studied homeopathy. He was impressed with the concept of utilizing the smallest dose potential however disapproved of the homeopathic use of mercury and arsenic, albeit in small doses. In conclusion, Seashore mentioned, “I’ve to state that I’ve little or no confidence in its healing properties. It might reply as a type of placebo to the thoughts the place no medication is required, or to amuse the affected person whereas nature results the remedy; however in energetic illnesses worthwhile time could be misplaced below it, which should be employed in administering efficacious treatments.” (86)

Thomsonian Drugs

Seashore was nicely conscious of Samuel Thomson and his “Puke and Steam” remedy. Seashore didn’t maintain Thomson, or his apply, in very excessive esteem, “The pure Thomsonians are inflexible followers of Samuel Thomas, an illiterate, immodest, arbitrary, and egocentric particular person, who obtained a patent for curing all illnesses by means of some articles comprised in six numbers…. His concept is, that warmth is life, and chilly is loss of life. And therefore the extra warmth, the extra life. Each the speculation and the apply are misguided… such a plan could remedy one man, however could kill others; and such has really been the very fact.”(87)

Contribution

Seashore’s contribution to the Eclectic medical motion was four-fold. He gave the motion a philosophy, a materia medica, a spot to review each, and a automobile to speak findings to the medical public.

Seashore’s Philosophy

Seashore’s philosophy will be present in his e book, “The American Follow of Drugs” (1833). At the start, Seashore aimed for his system to “launch the thoughts from the dogmas of creeds and programs, the philosophy of medical faculties, as they had been then taught, and to direct it to an infinite discipline of inquiry.” (88) Seashore’s primary philosophy was to take care of an open thoughts.

Past that, Seashore’s core ideas will be present in “The American Follow” and embody the next.

1. All medical sects and methods needs to be studied and the efficient methods adopted.

2. All medicines are to be examined within the scientific setting and their efficacy decided there.

3. All life-endangering methods are to be rejected, particularly bleeding, purging, and the usage of poisonous compounds or vegetation.

4. Medicines ought to come from the plant world.

5. Drugs ought to work with nature and by no means in opposition to it and harness the our bodies’ intrinsic therapeutic capability. (89)

These 5 ideas would turn into core beliefs of the Eclectic motion. (90)

Materia Medica

In Seashore’s “American Follow,” we discover the primary Eclectic materia medica. It’s 188 pages lengthy and discusses the particular medical use of 116 botanical medicines. Seashore lists a further 131 botanical medication which he suggests warrant additional investigation and analysis.

The Bodily Faculty

Shortly after opening his Infirmary in New York (1825), Seashore made plans for a clinic and a medical faculty. In 1827, he opened The US Infirmary, and in 1829, the Reformed Medical Academy. (91) Seashore then determined to maneuver his faculty to a frontier city and secured a location in Worthington, Ohio. When the college relocated (1830) there, it grew to become the Reformed Medical Faculty of Ohio. The Faculty in Worthington flourished for various years, enrolling and graduating college students. (92)

Medical Reformer

Seashore based a journal to disseminate the findings of his motion. The Reformed Medical Journal was first printed in 1832 and had the motto “The Science of medication, just like the Doric column, ought to stand easy, pure, and majestic, having reality as its foundation, induction for its pillar, and reality for its capital.” In 1836, the Reformed Medical Journal gave rise to the Western Medical Reformer. (88)

Dialogue

In keeping with Felter, Seashore’s biggest contribution was his popularization of reform medication, which he achieved by means of the publication “The American Follow” and the Reformed Medical Journal. The e book, Felter mentioned, “directly grew to become the usual work on apply among the many reformers, and acquired gold medals and different distinctions from overseas potentates and distinguished European physicians. It … had a big sale, and contributed vastly to the recognition of the reform motion.” (90) A up to date historian, Wade Boyle, concurs with this earlier historian’s opinion. (93)

One of many methods Seashore publicized his work was by sending examples of it to overseas dignitaries. As a consequence, he acquired 7 Medals of Honor from European heads of state. (126,127)

As well as, Wooster Seashore routinely challenged the medical institution and compelled them to defend their practices. For instance, in his inaugural tackle of the Worthington Academy (1831), he publicly attacked the “old fashioned” use of mercury. The Boston Medical Journal, and old fashioned publication, responded, “The inaugural tackle of the President is with out exception probably the most weak, absurd, and contemptible affair of the sort we ever met with in print.” The editors go on to ridicule Seashore for dismissing mercury, lead, and arsenic as medicines. (94) Undaunted, Seashore continued his assaults on the old-fashioned’s use of mercury.

Alex Berman, a recent analyst of the Eclectic motion, was fairly crucial of Seashore. “Usually talking, one is compelled to conclude, after reviewing Seashore’s work on the plant materia medica, that his contribution was noteworthy primarily for its mediocrity and extreme borrowing. “ (95) Berman notes that Seashore extracted elements of Elisha Smith’s The Botanic Doctor, verbatim, with out crediting the writer, and copied engravings from the work of Bigelow, Barton, and Rafinesque.

However, Seashore was very clear that “The American Follow” had been drawn from the traditional practices of medication (Empiric, Galenic, Chemical, Botanical) and the fashionable practices of medication (Allopathic, Mineral depletive, Thomsonian, Homeopathic, and Botanic) and from knowledge gathered touring hospitals and schools in America and Europe. (96) Seashore didn’t allege his work to be unique considering however reasonably a group of helpful medical methods gleaned from many sources.

Berman failed to say what gave Seashore’s work worth. Seashore selected the medicines and medical methods that labored and rejected those who didn’t. Seashore borrowed, however he borrowed with efficacy as his criterion, whereas the editors of the Boston Medical Journal selected to defend their use of heroic medication and to proceed utilizing it after Louis had confirmed that it didn’t work. (36)

Transition to Eclectic

Having breathed life right into a Reform Motion, given it a set of core values, constructed a faculty the place the core values may very well be examined and studied, and created a mechanism to speak the findings, Seashore then turned his consideration to his different curiosity, spiritual research. (97) He handed the baton onto the following technology.

The Worthington Reform Medical Faculty didn’t flourish for lengthy. The city of Worthington didn’t develop as had been anticipated, and there have been issues inside the college. In time, it failed. Nevertheless, the previous college students of Seashore saved the concept of the faculty alive and aspired to maneuver it to the then booming metropolis of Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1844, their dream was realized.

When the college reopened in Cincinnati, it reopened with a brand new identify. The time period Reform was changed with Eclectic.(98) The manifesto of the brand new school learn, “Our school will probably be strictly what its identify signifies—Eclectic—ex cluding all such medicines and such treatments as, below the atypical circumstances of their even handed use, are liable to supply evil penalties or endanger the long run well being of the affected person.” (99)

Dr.T.V. Morrow (1804-1850), president of the brand new Faculty, and former scholar of Seashore, gave a gap tackle to the incoming college students (November 7, 1846) that signifies Seashore’s philosophy was nonetheless in place. He concluded his welcome with this assertion: “No arbitrary restraints of thought and actions will probably be imposed on you right here to paralyze future efforts for its enchancment. We ask you to rigorously scrutinize its doctrines, and reject them every time they don’t commend themselves to your minds as cheap and true.” (100)

In 1848, on the Nationwide Conference of Reform Medical Practitioners, Seashore’s disciples, additionally dropped reform and changed it with “Eclectic.” (98) With the Eclectic Institute open in Cincinnati, the Eclectic motion moved into its subsequent part of growth. Presently, one other scholar of Seashore, John King, stepped onto heart stage.

John King MD (1813-1893)

King was born in New York Metropolis and early displayed a expertise for the sciences. In keeping with Felter, he was given a liberal training, spoke 5 languages, and was particularly keen on French literature. On leaving school he determined upon medication. At a time when medical heresy was harmful, he selected to attend Seashore’s Reformed Medical Faculty. He graduated in 1838, on the age of 25, and started his scientific apply in New Bedford, Massachusetts. In 1846 he moved his apply to Sharpsburg, Kentucky, corresponded with the brand new faculty in Cincinnati, and started to contribute to the Western Medical Reformer. When the Nationwide Eclectic Medical Affiliation was shaped (1848), he was named secretary and finally grew to become a member of the college on the Eclectic Institute (1851).

One of the crucial prolific Eclectic writers, he wrote “The American Dispensatory” in 1853. His e book would turn into the Eclectic textbook for the second half of the Nineteenth century and would undergo 18 editions. He was the main Eclectic educator, author, and advocate on the Institute till his loss of life from a stroke at age 80. (101)

Influences

Conviction

In a letter written to his trainer, Wooster Seashore, dated June twenty eighth 1842, King reveals one of many biggest influences in his life: conviction for reform medication. “And what reformer, who has witnessed the success of this technique, and the failure of the others, nay, not even failure, however the miseries produced, and has a thoughts of any feeling no matter of any like to his fellow creatures, or who possesses the smallest spark of humanity in his breast, wouldn’t dedicate his complete time and power to the holy objective of ameliorating the situation of his troubled fellow beings, by inserting earlier than them , and forcing upon them, that system of apply which cures, and cures when all others fail?” (102)

The French Faculty

King was influenced by the French Faculty of medication. His mom was the daughter of the Marquis La Porte, who got here to america to assist the American Revolution, and was absolutely accustomed to French. He might learn the fabric produced by the Parisian medical doctors (98) and translated their medical notes and papers for American medical Journals. (103)

Wooster Seashore

King was dedicated to Seashore and to Seashore’s “American Follow.” He took on Seashore’s philosophy, and it grew to become his personal. In a letter to Seashore (June twenty eighth, 1842), he expressed his adoration for each the person and the system: “the respect, the esteem, the admiration, the love of mankind, will all the time be with you, your system is destined to turn into the best and proudest decoration within the medical world.” (102)

Nature

King was strongly influenced by nature itself. Felter mentioned this of him, “John King lived near the guts of nature. Of her bounteous yield, he believed, might the world get hold of the most secure and finest treatments for the remedy or amelioration of the ills of the human type. He noticed great potentialities within the dwelling and life giving merchandise of mosses and herbs, shrubs and timber.” (104)

Medical Follow

King practiced medication all through his profession, first in Massachusetts, then in Kentucky, after which in Cincinnati. He was a well-liked practitioner and was reported to be fairly efficient. (104)

Contributions

Whereas on the Eclectic helm, King saved Seashore’s philosophy in place and refined the Eclectic materia medica. In brief, he took Seashore’s work and elaborated on it. Seashore’s textbook, “The American Follow,” was 800 pages lengthy. King’s up to date model of his academics’ textual content, “The American Dispensatory,” (1853) was greater than 1300 pages lengthy.

Sustaining Eclectic Philosophy

King was particularly eager on the Eclectic philosophy of selection. Lloyd, in his biography of King, mentioned, “His books kind a library that may be tough to duplicate, and present an infinite quantity of analysis and utility.” (103) Within the first web page of “The American Dispensatory,” King lists 44 completely different books as influencing his work, books that got here from each philosophical nook. (105)

In a lecture to incoming college students, one can observe King passing this philosophy onto the following technology: “To be a doctor within the true sense, the thoughts have to be unrestrained and never warped by prejudice; there have to be a freedom of selecting and choosing such medical views and such remedial brokers, with out regard to concept or devotedness to social gathering, as have been absolutely demonstrated by info and expertise to be probably the most in accordance with nature, and probably the most effectual in restoring well being.” (106)

He goes on to obviously outline what being an Eclectic meant: “Eclecticism, not like all sects in medication, it admits free investigation upon all issues pertaining to the science; it doesn’t hesitate to undertake no matter is discovered worthwhile, with out regard to its origin; it combats error and helps reality and enslaves the thoughts to nobody sided opinions.” (106)

Materia Medica

King inherited Seashore’s materia medica and spent his profession bettering it. He had two goals: so as to add worthy new herbs to the materia medica and to extend information concerning the prevailing herbs.

In regard to enlarging the materia medica, Lloyd mentioned this of King’s effort: “No supply of Information was left untouched, and early in his skilled profession he traveled far and huge investigating the treatments employed by the laity in home treatment. On this manner he added vastly to the materia medica…. He searched “the sector and forests” for untried medication, for with Professor King it was ever a concept that America was destined to contribute largely to the medicinal brokers of the world.” (107)

In regard to bettering the information of present treatments, King did two issues. First, he refined the scientific functions of the identified treatments by encouraging physicians to write down to him with their scientific findings concerning particular botanical medication. Secondly, he labored to enhance the pharmaceutical preparations of these treatments.

In regard to pharmacy, King devoted himself to bettering the manners during which the herbs had been ready and delivered as medication. The botanical or nation medical doctors, from whom the Eclectics realized their materia medica, used botanical treatments in crude manners, teas or whiskey extractions. King championed a extra subtle pharmacy and pioneered the manufacturing of each tinctures and extracts. (108)

Dialogue

King took a rudimentary materia, and elaborated upon it, utilizing the crucial technique of a French-influenced empiricist. He requested his colleagues to look at the scientific results of treatments and report these findings to him. He then integrated their findings in his dispensatory. By all accounts, he was a nice man and he, and his work, had been nicely appreciated. (109)

William Procter, Jr. (1817-1874), a well-known Nineteenth century American pharmacists, reviewed King’s American Dispensatory and mentioned, “[It] is actually a phenomenon within the medical historical past of america of no atypical curiosity” and that it “could also be esteemed a outstanding episode within the historical past of American medication and pharmacy.” (110)

In keeping with Berman, Procter’s commentary was important in that it represented “not solely a worthwhile critique of Botanicism and Eclecticism as seen by means of the eyes of probably the most distinguished pharmacists of the time, however are additionally among the many only a few dispassionate crucial analyses of Botanicism to seem in nineteenth century literature.”

Boyle mentioned of him, “King’s main contributions to botanical medication had been his pioneering work in botanical pharmacology, his landmark writings on botanical materia medica, and his distinguished service in coaching Eclectic physicians on the Eclectic Institute.” Boyle made the purpose that King’s efforts to enhance the pharmacy and pharmacology of botanical medication prolonged past the Eclectic world and into the world of “old fashioned” apply. (111)

Berman believes that King’s motivation for bettering the materia medica was sensible. “The neo-Thomsonians and the Eclectics vied with common physicians for social acceptance and public approval by means of scientific respectability. The event of a particular pharmacy of indigenous vegetation supplied the Eclectics their strongest bid for scientific recognition.” (112)

King improved the Eclectic materia medica, and his e book, “The American Dispensatory,” grew to become the textbook of the following technology of Eclectic physicians. One such scholar was John Milton Scudder.

John Milton Scudder (1829-1894)

The following important Eclectic, John Milton Scudder, was born in Hamilton, Ohio. Left fatherless, he went to work at age eight and finally put himself by means of school (Miami College). A graduate of the Eclectic Institute, he represented a brand new technology of Eclectic-trained Eclectics. On this new technology, Scudder stood forward of the group. Felter mentioned, “John Milton Scudder was probably the most conspicuous man in trendy Eclecticism.” (113)

Like all Eclectics, his influences had been many.

Conviction

Scudder was captivated with reform medication. His conviction was partly because of the reality heroic medication had killed three of his younger kids. (114) Scudder mentioned of heroic medication, “The outcomes of this apply, and the speculation upon which it was based mostly, had been very unsatisfactory, particularly to the individuals who needed to endure the penalty-in many circumstances lack of helpful lives… I make the assertion that the lancet has murdered 1000’s, and may show it from one of the best authorities of old fashioned medication.” (115)

Eclectic Physicians and Eclectic Drugs

Following the loss of life of his kids, Scudder sought out Dr. M.L. Thomas, an Eclectic doctor, as his mentor and preceptor. Scudder attended an Eclectic medical faculty and studied Eclectic medical books. He graduated valedictorian of his class in 1856 and was strongly influenced by King. (111)

Homeopathy

When Scudder was learning on the Eclectic Institute (1850s), homeopathy was considered favorably. In reality, the Eclectic Institute added a chair of homeopathy and graduated the primary homeopathic physicians within the west. The chair was abolished, however Scudder was uncovered to homeopathy throughout his scholar years. (111)

Medical Follow

Upon graduating from the Eclectic Institute, Scudder instantly started training medication in Fulton, a neighborhood in Cincinnati. Mentioned Lloyd, “His success, each as a practitioner and cash maker, was phenomenal. He shaped partnerships so as to deal with the immense enterprise. At one time his workplace was crowded with sufferers and the earnings from apply bumped into the three tens.” (112)

Contribution

The school of the Eclectic Institute was impressed with Scudder’s acumen, and upon commencement, he was instantly appointed Professor of Anatomy. He maintained a place there till 1894. He wrote quite a few books, delivered common lectures, and contributed to the Eclectic journal. (113) He saved the Eclectic rules alive and contributed to the evolution of the materia medica.

Upkeep of the Eclectic rules

In keeping with Scudder, Eclectics referred to as themselves Eclectics as a result of they selected what they believed. They didn’t settle for the phrases and concepts of others with out contemplation. “The time period Eclectic is derived from a Greek phrase which signifies to selected; we use it, nevertheless, in each the previous and current tense-we have chosen, we’re always selecting.” (114)

Benign medication

It was an abiding Eclectic precept that the doctor was to do no hurt. Scudder communicated this. “It’s a cardinal precept of the Eclectic system, that no medical remedy needs to be allowed which completely impairs or injures the very important powers; that no such remedy is, in any case, needed or correct, and that within the selection of treatments, we should always favor these that are most secure, and calculated to behave most practically in accordance with the legal guidelines of well being.” (115)

Analysis

Evolution of the Materia Medica

Scudder superior the Eclectic materia medica by means of the exploration of two pre-existing Eclectic ideas. Firstly, King labored to superb tune the functions of botanical treatments. Scudder went one step additional and made particular treatment a spoken path of Eclecticism. Secondly, the Eclectics believed in working with the physique’s personal therapeutic capability. Scudder expanded upon this concept.

Particular Remedy

Whereas working on the Institute, Scudder conceived the doctrines and apply of “particular treatment.” He started work on the idea in 1859 and printed a e book on the topic in 1869. The e book, “Particular Remedy and Particular Medicines,” was reprinted many occasions; its concepts turn into dominant doctrines of the Eclectic motion.

Scudder’s primary idea was that there have been particular medicines that handled particular illnesses and that it was the doctor’s job to seek out the particular medication for the case at hand. This went opposite to the “old fashioned” method that handled states of the humors and disavowed treating particular illnesses. (119) Primary tenets of Particular Remedy included the next.

1. There exist particular treatments that undermine particular illnesses.

2. To prescribe particular medicines, particular prognosis is required.

3. Particular prognosis first calls for an understanding of well being and departures from it. (120-121)

Intrinsic Therapeutic Capability

Scudder believed that the human physique had an intrinsic therapeutic capability and that this capability was powered by a drive he referred to as the “Vis conservatrix.” Illness, in his estimation, occurred when this drive was insufficient. (122) Scudder additionally believed that there have been botanical treatments that augmented this drive, treatments he referred to as tonics. By the way, each concepts will be tracked again to the works of Hippocrates. (123)

Scudder believed that tonics had an virtually common applicability—every time the therapeutic capability of the physique was wanted, tonics may very well be used to stimulate the method. He championed their use and analysis into them. The tonic grew to become an Eclectic weapon within the battle in opposition to illness. By the tip of the motion, the Eclectics had recognized and studied 203 completely different botanical treatments which they asserted had this capability.

Dialogue

Up to date historian Wade Boyle mentioned this of Scudder, “Botanical Drugs, maybe medication on the whole, reached certainly one of its highest factors within the Nineteenth century within the life and apply of John Scudder. Medical historians who’re usually hostile to, even shamefully prejudiced in opposition to, Eclecticism communicate of him respectfully as a person of marked skill, each medical and govt.” The historian goes on to say that his work with particular treatment “lifted botanical medication to a degree of scientific exactness.” (124)

Berman factors out that Scudder’s “Particular Remedy” shared sure components with homeopathy and that “the adversaries of the Eclectics had been to cry plagiarism” when he launched his e book. There have been similarities. The homeopaths grew to become very particular of their functions of medicines, and Scudder advocated the identical specificity. The homeopaths used a lot diluted preparations, and Scudder advocated the usage of the smallest potential dose. Nevertheless, the homeopaths handled like with like, and Scudder used medicines to harness the physique’s personal therapeutic mechanisms. (125)

Whether or not Scudder’s particular treatment was impressed by the homeopaths can’t be identified for sure. However the Eclectic utility of botanical treatments grew to become extra particular below Scudder’s watch. As well as, as a consequence of his particular curiosity in treatments that stimulated the physique to heal itself, the Eclectic materia medica contained extra tonics than when he took the helm.

Scudder’s revised materia medica was handed onto the final technology of Eclectics and was in energetic use nicely into the primary a part of the Twentieth-century. In Conclusion

The Eclectic philosophy of selecting the efficient and rejecting the ineffective, when mixed with their curiosity in botanical treatments, made them distinctive. Their examine of botanical treatments undaunted by dogma resulted in a well-tested materia medica. Authorities, then and now, have acknowledged the outcomes of their efforts.

William Procter, a number one pharmacist on the finish of the Nineteenth century, criticized the Eclectic motion for not conducting sufficient phytochemical exams, however counseled their efforts with their materia medica. In keeping with Procter, “there have been elements of Eclectic exercise which deserved to be rigorously investigated and shouldn’t be contemptuously dismissed.” (128) Coulter mentioned of the Eclectics, “the Eclectic faculty issued various botanical works of excessive scientific and scholarly worth” (129) In keeping with Berman, the Eclectics “made a powerful, acutely aware effort to synthesize the work of their much less educated colleagues, to affect the expansion of the plant materia medica, and to topic their plant medicinals to scientific verification.” (130) Historical past reveals many Eclectic treatments made their manner into america Pharmacopoeia and the Nationwide Formulary. (128)

That being mentioned, the Eclectic Institute closed its doorways in 1939, and with its closing, the motion handed into obscurity. That they had waged a 114-year battle in opposition to the medical institution, and, in the long run, misplaced.

They misplaced the battle partly because of their refusal to fixate on anybody doctrine or dogma. In keeping with Coulter, the Eclectic motion didn’t stand the check of time “due to its failure to formulate a coherent therapeutic doctrine.” (135) The doctrine of selecting made them good researchers, but it surely didn’t give the motion a transparent sufficient identification to face the check of time.

Additional, Dr. King’s adherence to the excessive street was not an environment friendly assault in opposition to the old-fashioned. Mentioned King in a lecture to his college students:

Eclecticism broadly differs from different programs, and particularly Allopathy, in its liberality and forbearance in direction of all who entertain reverse views and opinions. Eclectic college students, as an alternative of being taught to restrict their ideas and investigations inside circumscribed bounds or guidelines, no matter their correctness or falsity-the traditional course pursued in medical teachings-are educated to domesticate and keep the utmost freedom of psychological motion; to hear with endurance and respect to the views and opinions of others, irrespective of how critically they could battle with their very own; to check their truthfulness, and undertake them if good; or, if unhealthy, to cross them by with out regard to theories, preconceptions, sects, pursuits, fashionable favor, or something, save a information for the reality, and reality alone.” (105) Eclectics carried their chief’s sentiment, and it didn’t serve them within the brutal turf battle of Nineteenth-century medication.

Gevitz made the next comment concerning the pure life cycle of medical sects, “They’re conceived by a disaster in medical care; their youth is marked by a broadening of their concepts; and their decline happens when no matter distinctive notions they’ve as to affected person administration are allowed to wither. At this level, not having a reliable raison d’etre, they die.” (136)

The Eclectics gained reputation as a result of they supplied therapies which didn’t kill the sufferers. Folks appreciated them as a result of they didn’t use the lancet or mercury. When the medical institution deserted these practices, a part of their raison d’etre ceased to exist. They helped drive the medical institution to desert heroic medication, and in so doing, made themselves out of date.

The article of this thesis is to establish botanical medicines that could be helpful in sustaining well being. Well being relies upon upon the physique’s intrinsic therapeutic capability and botanical tonics allegedly include qualities that stimulate this exercise. A seek for efficient illness stopping botanical medication should logically start with the Eclectic Materia Medica. It represents 114 years of analysis into the topic and as Procter claimed, “there are components within the work of the Eclectics that warrant additional investigation.”

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61. Erichson-Brown, Charlotte. Medicinal and Different Makes use of of North American Crops. A historic survey with particular references to the Japanese Tribes. Dover Publications, New York. 1979. P. 481

62. Bell, Whitfield. Benjamin Smith Barton MD (Kiel), Journal of the Historical past of Drugs, XXVI (1971) P. 197-203.

63. Wilder, Alexander. Historical past of Drugs: A quick define of medical historical past and sects of physicians, from the earliest Historic Interval, with an Prolonged Account of the New Faculties of the Therapeutic Artwork within the Nineteenth Century, and Particularly a Historical past of the American Eclectic Follow of Drugs, By no means earlier than Revealed. New England Eclectic Publishing Firm, Maine, 1904, P. 422.

64. Boyle, Wade. Herb Medical doctors: Pioneers in Nineteenth Century American Botanical Drugs and A historical past of the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati. Buckeye Naturopathic Press, Ohio, 1988. P.15

65. Miller, Amy Bess. Shaker Herbs. A Historical past and A Compendium. Clarkson N. Potter, New York, 1976. P.1-9

66. Loafer, Ellen L. Ethical Drugs: Symbolic Content material in Nineteenth Century Shaker Therapeutics. Tradition, Drugs, and Psychiatry 13(1989)19-20

67. Boyle, Wade. Herb Medical doctors: Pioneers in Nineteenth Century American Botanical Drugs and A historical past of the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati. Buckeye Naturopathic Press, Ohio, 1988. P. 11

68. Waters, E. The Natural Medicines of the mid-Nineteenth Century Botanical Societies. Pharm.Hist(London) 2000 June; 30(2): 34-36

69. Haller, John. Kindly Medicines. A Historical past of the physio-medicals in American Drugs. New York State Journal of Drugs. Feb; 1993: P.140

70. Thomas, P. Homeopathy within the USA. British Homeopathic Journal (2001)90, 99-103.

71. Flannery, Michael A. John Uri Lloyd. The Nice American Eclectic. Southern Illinois College Press. Carbondale. 1998. P.xiii

72. Seashore, Wooster. Ibid. P. XX

73. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Historical past of the Eclectic Medical Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1845-1902. Alumnal Affiliation of the Eclectic Institute. Cincinnati. 1902. P 5

74. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Ibid. P.81

75. Seashore, Wooster. Ibid. P.V.

76. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Ibid. P.81 Quoted from Seashore, Wooster, “The Rise, Progress, and Current State of the New York Medical Establishment and Reformed Medical society of america”, printed by the writer, 1830.

77. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Ibid. P.81 Quoted from Seashore, Wooster. “The Rise, Progress, and Current State of the New York Medical Establishment and Reformed Medical society of america”, printed by the writer, 1830.

78. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Ibid. P.82

79. Porter, A.H. quoted in Seashore, Wooster. Ibid. P.IX.

80. Haller, John S. Ibid. P. 69.

81. Coulter, Harris L. Divided Legacy: A Historical past of the Schism in Medical Thought. Quantity III, Science and Ethics in American Drugs” 1800-1914, Three Volumes, Wehawken Guide Firm, Washington DC, 1973. P.88.

82. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Ibid. P.5

83. Seashore, Wooster. Ibid. P.XII. (Quoting Porter, A.H.)

84. Seashore, Wooster. Ibid. (Quoting Porter, A.H.)

85. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Ibid. P.83

86. Seashore, Wooster. Ibid. P. XIII

87. Seashore, Wooster. Ibid. P.IX

88. Seashore, Wooster. (Quoted in Haller, John S. Ibid. P. 71 quoted in Firth, The Origin of the American Eclectic Follow of medication, and Its Early Historical past within the State of New York, Transaction, Eclectic Medical Society of New York, X(1878) 171.)

89. Seashore, Wooster. Ibid. P.X

90. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Ibid. P. 83

91. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Ibid. P. 82 Quoting Wilder, Alexander. “Wooster Seashore”. Eclectic Medical Journal, 1893, P.113-121.

.

92. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Ibid. P. 83

93. Boyle, Wade. Herb Medical doctors: Pioneers in Nineteenth Century American Botanical Drugs and A historical past of the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati. East Palestine, Ohio. Buckeye Naturopathic Press. 1988. P. 7-9

94. Coulter, Harris. Divided Legacy: The Battle Between Homeopathy and the American Medical Affiliation: Science and Ethics in American Drugs 1800-1914 North Atlantic Books, Richmond, California, 1982. P.90-91

95. Berman, Alex. . A Striving for Scientific Respectability: Some American Botanics and the Nineteenth Century Plant Materia Medica, Madison, American Institute of the Historical past of Pharmacy, Contributions from the Historical past of Pharmacy Division of the Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Wisconsin, Quantity 4. 1956. P 7.

96. Seashore, Wooster. Ibid. P.V-XX

97. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Ibid. P. 83

98. Lloyd, John Uri. Biographies of John King, Andew Jackson Howe, John Milton Scudder. Bulletin of the Lloyd Library of Botany, Pharmacy, and Materia Medica. Cincinatti, 1912. P.4

99. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Ibid. P. 21

100. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Ibid. P.26

101. Felter, Harvey Wickes. P. 13-115

102. Lloyd, John Uri. Ibid. P. 11

103. Lloyd, John Uri. Ibid. P.6

104. Lloyd, John Uri. Ibid. P.11

105. King, John. The American Eclectic Dispensatory. Moore, Wilstach, and Keys. Cincinnati, 1854. P.X

106. Lloyd, John Uri. Ibid. P.48. (Quoting King, John. “Lecture to incoming college students on the Eclectic Institute”. )

107. Lloyd, John Uri. Ibid. Web page 11

108. King, John. Ibid. P.VIII

109. Lloyd, John Uri. Ibid. P. 49 (Quoting lecture of John King).

110. Berman, Alex. . A Striving for Scientific Respectability: Some American Botanics and the Nineteenth Century Plant Materia Medica, Madison, American Institute of the Historical past of Pharmacy, Contributions from the Historical past of Pharmacy Division of the Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Wisconsin, Quantity 4. 1956. P. 11-13.

111. Boyle, Wade. Herb Medical doctors: Pioneers in Nineteenth Century American Botanical Drugs and A historical past of the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati. Buckeye Naturopathic Press. 1988. P. 24

112. Berman, Alex. The Eclectic Concentrations and American Pharmacy (1847-1861). Pharmacy in Historical past. Vol.XXII, No.3, 1980. P.91-103

113. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Ibid. Web page 118

114. Felter, Harvey Wickes. Ibid. Web page 118

115. John Milton Scudder. The Eclectic Doctor. Twenty First Version, Fifth Revision. Cincinnati. John Okay.Scudder. 1887. P.28-32

116. Scudder, John Milton. Particular Remedy and Particular Medicines. Fifth Version. Cincinnati. Wilstach, Baldwin, and Co. Cincinnati. 1874. P.vii.

117. Scudder, John Milton. Ibid. P.106

118. Scudder, John Milton. Ibid. P. 165

119. Haller, John S. Ibid. P. 16

120. Scudder, John Milton. Ibid. P.10

121. Scudder, John Milton. Ibid. P.15

122. Scudder, John Milton. The American Eclectic Materia Medica and Therapeutics. Tenth Version, revised and rewritten. Revealed by the writer. Cincinnati. 1883. P. 48

123. Scudder, John Milton. Ibid. P. 25

124. Boyle, Wade. Ibid. P. 28-29

125. Berman, A. Wooster Seashore and the Early Eclectics. Med Bull (Ann Arbor) 1958 July; 24(7): 282

126. Haller, John S. Ibid. P. 72.

127. Berman, Alex. A Striving for Scientific Respectability: Some American Botanics and the Nineteenth Century Plant Materia Medica, Madison, American Institute of the Historical past of Pharmacy, Contributions from the Historical past of Pharmacy Division of the Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Winsconsin, Quantity 4. 1956. P. 13. (Quoting from “Feedback, Boston Medical and Surgical Journal” XXVIII (1843) 304

128. Berman, Alex. The Eclectic Concentrations and American Pharmacy(1847-1861). Pharmacy in Historical past. Vol.XXII, No.3, 1980. P.100.

129. Coulter, Harris. Divided Legacy: The Battle Between Homeopathy and the American Medical Affiliation: Science and Ethics in American Drugs 1800-1914 North Atlantic Books, Richmond, California, 1982. P.93

130. Berman, Alex. . A Striving for Scientific Respectability: Some American Botanics and the Nineteenth Century Plant Materia Medica, Madison, American Institute of the Historical past of Pharmacy, Contributions from the Historical past of Pharmacy Division of the Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Wisconsin, Quantity 4. 1956. P 7.

131. Berman, Alex. The Thomsonian Motion and Its Relation to American Pharmacy and Drugs. Bulletin of the Historical past of Drugs. Vol XXV; Quantity 5, Sept-Oct, 1951, P. 406

132. Linceum, Jerry Bryan. Medical Controversy within the Nineteenth-Century America South: Botanics vs.Allopaths. Caduceus 1994 Winter; 10(3):131-44.

133.Coulter, Harris. Divided Legacy: The Battle Between Homeopathy and the American Medical Affiliation: Science and Ethics in American Drugs 1800-1914 North Atlantic Books, Richmond, California, 1982. P.93

134. Lloyd, John Uri. Ibid. P.48. (Quoting King, John. “Lecture to incoming college students on the Eclectic Institute”. )

135.Inexperienced, Barton. Gloom or Growth for Chiropractic in its Second Century. A comparability of the demise of Various Therapeutic Professions. Chiropractic Historical past Quantity 14, No.2.1994: 25

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